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Ten years' occupation of federation by import sausages today has come to naught. Euphoria of consumer preference to inaccessible products in Soviet times has disappeared. Process "русификации" has sped up дефолт 1998. However, the further replacement of foreign products is already impossible. Various sources of 2002 allocate(remove) a share of the market in 1-2 percents to a segment of overseas sausages. Also it is necessary to take into account, that according to Goskomstat of the Russian Federation of capacity of the Russian manufacturers of sausages are involved only half. These are average figures. In practice weak - close manufacture in general, and hundreds stably working meat-packing plants commission new, more productive lines. Only in the Penza area manufacture of sausage products has per capita increased in comparison with 1998 in 4 times. Have increased release of sausages and the Mordovian manufacturers.
The competition becomes aggravated, and the market remains same as incomes of the population of Russia are increased slowly - inflation eats. In January, 2002 of the price for sausage products have grown on different regions up to 7 %. And still development(manufacture) of sausage products in 2001 has increased on 11,8 %, having made 1,2 million tons. According to the most conservative estimates in 2002 the increase of release of sausage products is predicted on 5,7 %. For February forty four enterprises of the European part of Russia as a group let out 367 names of cooked and 220 half-smoked sausages. The list of smoked products зашкаливал for 300 names, sausages, sausages - for 190.
The analysis of price-lists shows, that among the Moscow manufacturers the greatest quantity(amount) of marks offers Черкизовский МПЗ (361 position). In Peter the leader on assortment - " Parnassus of M " (174 positions). Among regional manufacturers with 304 positions predominates Ekaterinburg МПЗ (see. A Fig. 1).
It would seem, huge assortment of sausage products it is possible to be admired. But recollect an old saying: дурачок красненькому it is pleased. When at the buyer eyes run up, it(he) suffices the most brilliant, bright. It is psychology. And if soberly to think, what color there should be a sausage if she(it) is made of meat? Correctly, - colors of cooked meat, grey. Розоватость to sausage gives starch, and bright red - the stabilizer of color nitrite of sodium. In the VISITOR of 1955 working now on whom it was done(made) present Soviet and the present Russian sausage is done(made), similar components are not stipulated. Therefore also appear not "Diabetic" and "Tea", and " Diabetic new " and " Tea plus ". Plus that? Except for dyes modern sausages are stuffed with a soya. All right domestic. Till now there are no confirmed data on influence on the person of genetically changed overseas soya. Because of перестроечного disorder of agrarian and industrial complex, the "know-how" at us are now those, that a qualitative domestic soya - a rarity. And sausage of ours contains vegetative fibers of unknown structure. The same can be told about meat. Till now not risen agriculture gives on the different data from 20 up to 30 percents of meat, suitable for processing. The others of 70-80 percents act besides from abroad. This meat goes to us глубокозамороженным, and good sausages were always done(made) of pair meat.
Comparing consumer abilities of the consumer and a procurement price of meat, only the solid manufacturer is capable to offer the sausages adequate(answering) to traditional recipes. For the comparative price analysis we have chosen from fifteen names of "Doctor's" sausage ГОСТовскую "Doctor's" the premium, made on 36 enterprises of the European Russia. From nine versions "Amateur" (23 manufacturers), nine - "Dairy" (32 manufacturers), six - "Останкинской" (17 manufacturers), ten - "Russian" (25 manufacturers) and nine names "Tea" (18 manufacturers) we have chosen only on one cooked sausage having the unmodified name "Amateur", "Dairy", "Останкинская" made on traditional ГОСТам (see. A Fig. 2).
From half-smoked sausages have selected for the analysis for a long time manufacturers of the European Russia known and issued by the majority. But also they are not deprived "doubles". Half-smoked "Krakow" in Russia is issued in 6 names at 35 manufacturers (80,4 %). And sausage "Odessa" has 5 names at 26 manufacturers (60,9).
Also for the price analysis from полукопченостей we have taken " Колбаски hunting " (20 manufacturers) and "Tallinn" в/с (21 manufacturer) (see. Rice 3). Unfortunately, the recognized marks: "Армавирская", "Moscow", "Polish" and " Ukrainian fried " are not issued by a plenty of manufacturers and are not included in our analysis. Though it does not testify to absence of the listed sausages in the grocery market.
The comparative analysis of smoked products appeared the extremely inconvenient as from 313 names made in the European Russia, national брэндов practically is not present. For example, variations of a balyk let out(be issued) from 12 up to 18 percents of the manufacturers considered by us. A similar situation with a boiled pork, " the Ham for breakfast " and " the Beef seignioral ". Probably the large manufacturer meaningly gives this niche fine which smokes the products under own recipes (т. е. Not on ГОСТу, and on THAT). Only " Пастрома к/з " is issued 13-ю by factories, " Шпиг Hungarian " - 17-ю, and " Шпиг home-style " 10-ю (see. Rice 4).
The most democratic products мясопереработки - sausages - sausages, thanking, besides orientations to a not thick purse, in the metamorphosises reach(achieve) hundred names. But only on two marks of each kind deserve a title all-Russian брэнда: " Sausages 1 with ", " Sausages beef ", " Sausages amateur " and " Sausages dairy в/с ". It is necessary to attach to them " дитю shuttle tourism " - сарделечно-сосисочную an innovation " Шпикачки в/с in н/о ", let out now in ten large manufacturers of the European part of Russia (see. Rice 5).
The disorder of the prices on which manufacturers offer the most popular брэнды reaches(achieves) 70 percents. So, the price on " Doctor's в/с " Черкизовского a meat-packing plant is equal 105 roubles / kg, and Nizhniy Novgorod Open Company " alpha - is old " - 65 roubles. The cost price on "Amateur" ГП " Оброченский a meat-packing plant " (Mordovia) on 40 % is lower, than on similar production Дзержинского МК (rice 2).
In general, average cost prices for the cooked sausages most widespread at the manufacturer change between 80 and 90 roubles without dependence from regions (see tab. 1).
The similar situation is observed with cost prices for popular half-smoked sausages: the enterprises of different territories as though chooses to itself "конек" and leaves on it(him), far arranging competitors. In the Nizhniy Novgorod area meat-packing plants - neighbours "Дзержинский" also "Alpha - is old" sell " Krakow в/с " with a difference more, than in 70 percents. (138 and 80 roubles for kg accordingly). The price for the "Odessa" and "Tallinn" sausages of petersburg Open Companies " Пит-products " and Open Company " Стрелец-СПб-Р " is lower than the prices of production "Дзержинского" and "Чернышихинского" meat-packing plants of the Nizhniy Novgorod area 80 and 45 percents accordingly.
Cost prices of the most running half-smoked sausages change between 94 and 101 rouble (7 %) behind exception " Колбасок hunting " - 128 roubles for kg. Well, but it and колбаски from pure(clean) pork.
The prices of the Russian factories for smoked products give in to any law a little. Cost "Пастромы" in Surgut - 120 roubles for kg, and in Kirov similarly far from the centre - 188. At the same time the prices capital переработчиков on "Пастрому" keep in the middle. Leadership and аутсайдерство cost prices on " Шпиг on - венгерски " also at provincial meat-packing plants. (see fig. 4).
Unconditional favorites of the low prices for sausages and relatives to them шпикачки - hold petersburg "Parnassus", "Пит-product". " Sausages amateur " are the cheapest at "МиКо" (Н. Novgorod), and " Sausages dairy в/с " - at Nizhniy Novgorod Агрофирмы "Апис" and the Kazan meat-packing plant. The difference in the price of last mark of sausages with Слободским a meat-packing plant exceeds 45 percents. Such situation speaks that average manufacturers simply can not master release on 500 tons of meat products in day what agrarian and industrial complex " Черкизовский " or Микояновский МПЗ have now. And when there is no cheap sausage, will sell also expensive(dear). Indirectly the thesis confirms last decision Микояновского МПЗ to enclose 3 million in a new line on manufacture of sausages.
Objectivity for the sake of, we shall result the comparable table head and regional (Penza) Черкизовского of meat-packing plants. At the stepson and the assortment is poorer, and the prices hardly are cheaper (see tab. 2). Discounts for a province are done(made) also with petersburg "Parnassus", but his(its) prices appear in our analysis just and for regions.
Not putting in this research a problem(task) of the analysis of retail prices for sausage products in Russia, we have lead(carried out) a test cut of preferences of representatives среднеобеспеченной categories of the population of various territories of federation. Directors of the marketing centres which are included in international System MMTS (73 regions) were interrogated. The test has confirmed a conclusion fixed by early another(others) researches: the population of regions prefers sausages of the local manufacturers (cooked "Doctor's" loves 90 % interrogated). Only in the cities which are included in " a zone of influence " megacities, tastes fork. Representatives Vladimir, Ivanov, of Kaluga, Kostroma level with local respect production Ногинского, Черкизовского and Царицинского МПЗ (basically smoked sausages). In Arkhangelsk and Petrozavodsk - Petersburg "Parnassus" (also smoked sausages).
The Margin on capital meat products in retail regional trade is huge. Got to Arkhangelsk "Cossack" Микояновского combine it is sold on 90 roubles for kg, though the price of the manufacturer without traditional discounts - 43 roubles (106 percents by plus). In Saransk "Брауншвейгская" of the same combine costs(stands) 375 roubles (shop " salute ", at holiday 235 for kg (60 percents of the margin).
To sausages of fellow countrymen an increase from 10 (Penza, Cheboksary) up to 36 (Ekaterinburg) of interests.
Probably, such disorder of used margins is dictated by local demand for products. Before to summarize the listed data, it is necessary to stop on the noneconomic characteristic of work мясоперерабатывающих the enterprises of Russia.
Collecting the information directly from переработчиков, colleagues from one саранского a trading house have understood what to cooperate with masters very hardly: from head Черкизовского and Микояновского they beat out the primitive price-list almost with blood. To phone and in divisions " Parnassuss ", "КампоМос", " Царицинского МПЗ " knowing with shipment too a problem - or chronic employment of a line, or a fax on the automatic device (without an answering machine). For a long time becoming e-mail these enterprises is used by usual means of dialogue selectively. Anyway, letter boxes taken from sites it is dead were silent. In the Internet "hang" for a long time rotten прайсы.
Rather young capital переработчики and the vigorous regional enterprises to grasp the share of the market, are beaten for each potential client. Petersburg "Стрелец" it is ready to work round the clock. Situated near Moscow "Мортадель" and in eight evenings hospitably dispatches price-lists. "Пит-product" and the Surgut meat-packing plant instantly react to inquiries of clients by e-mail. On a site of the Bryansk meat-packing plant established prices are placed really.
One more parameter of mobility became efficiency of inclusion in price-lists of the prices for new production. The information thrown in MASS-MEDIA on release "Стрельцом" in January, 2002 " Sausages dairy " till February has not found reflection in прайсе. And the prices on started up in sale at the end of January new бренд Черкизовского МПЗ - sausages "Добрыня", we have learned(found out) only from lips of employees of divisions of selling. To a word, " Doctor's Добрыня ", having a difference in the price with the sister - черкизовкой " Doctor's in bubbles " 60 percents (71 and 113 roubles accordingly), for certain will be won by the market. As under flavouring characteristics of the twin are similar, and period of storage "Добрыни" is declared in 60 days.
What to expect in the near future from manufacturers of sausages of Russia?
After a cancellation of grants of EU on pork and their significant reduction on a beef,
To federation becomes unprofitable to import meat. Having worked 2001 on the rests of overseas raw material, large capital manufacturers have prepared for transition on domestic. And, whenever possible, on, own. Черкизовский the octopus to the beginning of 2002 has finished in strong meat of the Rostov area first-order reconstruction Салького of a meat-packing plant (it is invested about 3 million). Owner "Микояна" company " ЭкСима " increases manufacture on the свинокомплексах. "Parnassus" developing the agrarian and industrial complex does not lag behind muscovites and petersburg.
The tendency of capital businessmen to invest in profitable manufactures in глубинке is available. If earlier meat went for processing to Moscow, and then came back in a province as sausage and sausages now, having bought meat-packing plants on places, muscovites have won three times: have saved on transportation of meat, on a payment переработчиков, on promotion of trade marks - production, the enterprises belonging to muscovites in a province all the same it is considered the, so, preferable. A vivid example - the "Soviet" meat-packing plant of the Kaliningrad area. Having taken hold of him(it), muscovites invested 2 million then it is sharp подвинули in an enclave of competitors in re-equipment, and with 2002 begin deliveries to Moscow. In our analysis we objectively could not estimate price positions of this enterprise (in the table parameters go in the separate line) as production of a meat-packing plant "Soviet", unique of everything, is not assessed on the added cost. Means, the "Soviet" sausages - sausages are much cheaper, but, reselling them, the wholesaler does not receive compensation from the budget, that at certain(determined) раскладе, not favourably.
Thus, simultaneously with expansion to a province of capital giants return process will be observed. Local factory owners at support of regional authorities on huge budgetary injections are integrated, make active manufacture and make napoleonic plans. In the Samara area Tolyatti "Leader" rattles. In Ненецком joint-stock company Nar'jan-Marskomu to a meat-packing plant from the budget allocate the loan more than 20 million roubles In Mordovia one society with limited liability, having received under itself three basic republican meat-packing plants and, with the help of long-term credits from the Moscow budget, prepares to intrude from 2000 tons of meat products capital.
The third future feature - differentiation of manufacturers on assortment. There, where a plenty of millionaires (Moscow, Samara, Khanty-Mansiysk, Krasnodar, Н lives. Novgorod, Petrozavodsk), is a reason to invest in manufacture of delicacies. In other regions deficiency of cheap domestic raw material, undoubtedly, will result in prevalence of production, рецептурно a little containing meat (sausage - sausage). Or - вбрасыванию (on a line) неГОСТовских marks of sausages. Then for разноцветием assortments are exact anybody and will not recollect, that the present Italian salami is made from ослиного meat. Because of constant growth of cost prices (see) the population of Russia and will consume tab. 3 of meat products almost twice less than the scientifically-grounded norm. But " life is more tasty " start of balloons will not make …

Alexander ШАРАШКИН,

The general director
The inter-regional marketing centre
"Mordovia - Moscow",
Member of the Union of journalists of the Russian Federation.

P.S. When the material was prepared for printing, Госторгинспекция the Russian Federation has distributed the message, that since July, 1, 2002 sausage "masquerade" should be stopped. So we shall hope, that in sausage under the name "Doctor's" we shall not find more neither a soya, nor starch.
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