The analysis of the offer of manufacturers of vegetables and fruit.
Experts of the Inter-regional Marketing Centre "Vladimir - Moscow" have lead(carried out) the analysis of the offer of manufacturers of vegetables and the fruit located in the Vladimir area. At the analysis the data of interrogation of Directors of services of selling of five large enterprises - manufacturers (СПК "Ставровское", СПК "Murom", СПК "Fruit", combine " hothouse ", СПК "Коммунар") were used.
The analysis has shown, that a basis of assortment of these enterprises – vegetable production. Fruit raises only СПК "Fruit" (Murom р-н). Other enterprises are engaged exclusively in cultivation of vegetables.
Among выращиваемых fruit apples, a currant, a strawberry, черноплодная a mountain ash and a pear prevail. Among vegetables – a potato, carrots, cabbage, cucumbers, beet, vegetable marrows. Less often the assortment of manufacturers includes tomatoes, a garden radish, a parsley, fennel. The cauliflower and sweet pepper practically are not raised. Any of the interrogated enterprises does not raise an onions(a bow) and garlic. At the interrogated enterprises the various sprouts (cabbage, pepper etc.), but also a radish, краснокочанная cabbage, a pumpkin, eggplants, a rhubard, щавель, spinach, a horse-radish, a celery is raised. Flowers are raised also.
Thus the majority of Directors have noted, that cucumbers, a potato, tomatoes, a parsley, fennel, vegetable marrows, cabbage use the greatest demand. Among fruit – a strawberry and черноплодная a mountain ash. Production is realized, basically, in nearby areas (within the limits of the Vladimir area). Realization in the Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod areas also is carried out. Selling is made as directly, through own shops (in shops, in the markets), and by means of intermediaries (the enterprises and private persons).
The basic problems of the enterprises – a sharp competition on the part of private tragers and the enterprises from other regions, absence of advanced orders and contracts, inopportuneness of reception of cash, delays of payments on the part of wholesale bases. Negative influence of the unmatched price politics is marked also. The majority of private tragers aspire to establish the smaller price for production faster to sell. As a result of their production is bought up quickly, and production of shops and the shops realizing production of firms - manufacturers of fruit and vegetables, lies too long, spoils.
На деятельности предприятий-производителей плодоовощной продукции отрицательно сказываются и высокие налоги, а также проблема транспорта (изношенность имеющегося парка машин, постоянный рост цен на ГСМ, зачастую недостаточная грузоподъемность имеющегося транспорта). Однако проблема транспорта не настолько остро встает перед производителями, чтобы назвать ее главной. Конечно, предпочтительнее был бы самовывоз, но в связи с довольно ограниченными финансовыми возможностями большинства клиентов производители все-таки используют свой транспорт. Что касается страховки груза, то практически никто не прибегает к услугам разного рода страховых организа-ций, считая это мероприятие бесперспективным. Большинство производителей признают проблему качества продукции. О качестве нужно заботиться. Если предотвратить неблагоприятные погодные условия невозможно, то все остальные причины ухудшения качества продукции вполне реально устранить. К таким причинам можно отнести несоблюдение экологических, технологических, санитарных условий сбора, обработки, хранения и транспортировки овощей и фруктов. На многих предприятиях для проверки соответствия продукции нормам и требованиям ГОСТов прибегают к помощи специализированных организаций. Среди таких организаций Санэпи-демнадзор, Организация по качеству в департаменте сельского хозяйства, Владимирский центр метрологии и стандартизации, Станция защиты растений. Вместе с тем отмечается несоответствие существующих ГОСТов биологическим требованиям культуры и спроса населения.
To transport fruit-and-vegetable production it is better in disposable container. It is possible to use also containers (on 100-200 kg), usual wooden boxes (on 15 kg), grids - bags (on 50 kg), for a potato – kapron bags. The most bad way of storage and transportation – навалом as the significant part of the goods is lost. In opinion of manufacturers, buyers prefer fruits equal, without defects, medium-sized, it is better, if all fruits in packing identical size. Products should correspond(meet) to requirements of GOST and to be safe for health of the person from the point of view of a chemical compound.
It is necessary to talk more in detail about channels of distribution of fruit-and-vegetable production. A number of manufacturers prefer to resort to the help of intermediaries, and it is better, if the intermediary – large wholesale base. Manufacturers concern to cooperation with shops skeptically, seeing from such cooperation only one "minuses": shops take production only on realization, and waste products arising at it do not take into consideration, inopportuneness of payments. The essential role at such estimation is played also by that now there are very few greengroceries. The majority created were ruined earlier, and that have remained, in opinion of the majority of manufacturers, on the verge of ruin.
To such variant of cooperation as work under the order, manufacturers, basically, concern positively. Really, work under the order allows to feel some stability to get confidence of tomorrow's day, especially if the made contract provides an advance payment and the further updating of the prices. However in case of a poor harvest it is possible to break performance of the contract, having paid besides the penalty. Work under the order can be favourable only then when between the parties(sides) legally competent contract in which all possible variants of development of events and their consequences are maximum full taken into account(discounted) is made.
Proceeding from the data of interrogation of manufacturers of vegetables and fruit in the Vladimir area, it is possible to draw a number of conclusions. As a whole the market of fruit-and-vegetable production differs instability, a wide scatter of the prices, sharp competitive struggle, but at the same time wide assortment of the submitted goods. The main competitors for large enterprises - manufacturers – private tragers (gardeners - truck farmers). In such conditions especially carefully it is necessary for manufacturers to watch(keep up) quality of production, behind its(her) conformity to norms and requirements of GOST, behind observance of rules of harvesting, processing, sorting, storage and transportation of production. All this will allow manufacturers to avoid superfluous expenses and to lower interest of waste products.
Also not bad would be to study tastes of consumers to reveal their wishes concerning assortment, qualities of production, periodicity of purchase, their opinion on a situation in the market of vegetables and fruit. Besides it is expedient to pay attention to a problem of insurance both ready and shipped production, and production which is not brought up yet (in case of work under the order). In the latter case, probably, in details "to shift" it is required to study, analyse and try on concrete conditions principles and methods of conducting trade with use фьючерсных contracts.